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Palpation Techniques: Surface Anatomy For Physi...

This lavishly illustrated guide to palpation techniques provides readers with a solid understanding of topographic anatomy using clear, step-by-step descriptions that teach how to first identify, and then distinguish between, the various body structures.Full-color photographs feature models with detailed drawings of muscles, bones, and tendons sketched directly onto their skin, indicating exactly where and how to palpate. Complementary color drawings show the functional significance of each anatomic region. Features

Palpation Techniques: Surface Anatomy for Physi...

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PHTH 104 - Surface Anatomy, Palpation, and Massage (TP/SS only) In-depth exploration of surface anatomy and palpation of structures essential for physical therapy practice. Students are introduced to joint movement terminology and performance. Massage techniques are presented along with tests and measures necessary for the safe application of range of motion and massage techniques. PREREQUISITE(S): A grade of C or better in BIOL 150 . COREQUISITE(S): PHTH 102 , PHTH 112 , and PHTH 113 . One hour lecture, two hours laboratory each week. Formerly PT 104.2 semester hours Course Outcomes: Upon course completion, a student will be able to:

In order to make an accurate differential diagnosis of CECS and apply treatment, it is important for clinicians to quickly and accurately locate the IOF and associated structures during the clinical examination [11, 12]. Previous studies using cadaver dissections of the leg have been performed to identify the relationship of the ATA to the tibia [13] and to measure the length and width of the IOF for surgical interventions [14]. However, no studies have been performed to identify the surface projection of the IOF and ATA in the proximal leg with palpation.

Light palpation is used to feel abnormalities that are on the surface. You use the front of your fingers to gently press down into the area of the body about 1 to 2 centimeters. Then lift your fingers off the body and move to the next nearby area. This helps identify the texture, tenderness, temperature, moisture, elasticity, pulsations, and masses.

Context: Musculoskeletal palpation is taught in our athletic training programs as part of the injury evaluation process. However, as palpation skills are taught, the focus is oftentimes on accuracy of surface-anatomy landmarks instead of the ability to discriminate qualitative information such as tissue tone, spasm, or pain response from the soft tissue. Because palpation is foundational for evaluation and intervention, a need exists for further development of this skill.

Athletic training programs are proficient in developing a clinician's ability to accurately palpate surface-anatomy landmarks. However, students and entry-level clinicians likely need additional practice to develop advanced palpation skills such as tissue discrimination and force application during joint mobilizations. When students are introduced to drills and activities to develop qualitative palpation skills, they should, with practice, become better clinicians prepared to administer advanced evaluation and treatment techniques.

A 1-day workshop was conducted on living (surface) anatomy for practicing physiotherapists (n = 27) through a CPD program. This training included manual muscle testing and body painting of selected muscles of trunk and limbs. Pre- and post-tests were conducted to analyze the impact of the module on improvement in participants' knowledge and skills. In addition, participants were requested to respond to a questionnaire (15 items) on a 5-point Likert scale.

Analysis of the pre- and post-test scores revealed a significant increase (34.6%) in surface anatomy knowledge. Majority of the participants opined that the workshop was organized effectively (100%) and the modules helped them to become aware of the lacunae in their knowledge (100%). They also echoed that they realized the need for continuous self-directed learning (100%) and responded that they would attempt to apply whatever they learned through the workshop in their clinical practice (96%). The overall satisfaction score reported by the participants was 9, on a rating scale ranging from 1 to 10 (1 = very poor; 10 = excellent).

In reviewing the functional anatomy of spinal block, an intimate knowledge of the spinal column, spinal cord, and spinal nerves must be present. This chapter briefly reviews the anatomy, surface anatomy, and sonoanatomy of the spinal cord.The vertebral column consists of 33 vertebrae: 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 4 coccygeal segments. The vertebral column usually contains three curves. The cervical and lumbar curves are convex anteriorly, and the thoracic curve is convex posteriorly. The vertebral column curves, along with gravity, baricity of local anesthetic, and patient position, influence the spread of local anesthetics in the subarachnoid space. Figure 1 depicts the spinal column, vertebrae, and intervertebral disks and foramina.

It would be incomplete to discuss surface anatomy without mentioning the dermatomes that are important for spinal anesthesia. A dermatome is an area of skin innervated by sensory fibers from a single spinal nerve. The tenth thoracic (T10) dermatome corresponds to the umbilicus, the sixth thoracic (T6) dermatome the xiphoid, and the fourth thoracic (T4) dermatome the nipples. Figure 6 illustrates the dermatomes of the human body. To achieve surgical anesthesia for a given procedure, the extent of spinal anesthesia must reach a certain dermatomal level. Dermatomal levels of spinal anesthesia for common surgical procedures are listed in Table 5.

This course provides an introduction to the study of human structure by presenting an integrated approach to the normal human body. Western anatomy and acupuncture energetic anatomy are bridged in this course that emphasizes musculoskeletal anatomy through lecture, palpation and movement. Major landmarks are described and are related to interior anatomical structures, emphasizing key acupuncture point location with physical assessment. Human skeletons, anatomical charts, models and full color digital images will be used for demonstration. After completing this course, students will understand human structure at cell, tissue, organ, system and organism levels. Throughout knowledge of human structure will be a foundation for further study of physiology, patho-physiology, western medicine and acupuncture.

Data on palpation pressures used during the study were obtained using a FlexiForce tactile force sensor device (Tekscan Inc, South Boston, Mass). FlexiForce consists of an ultra-thin, flexible force sensor connected to force measurement software installed on a standard personal computer. The sensor used in the present study had a measurement range of 0 to 11.43 N/cm2, occurring in gradations of 0.09 N/cm2. The surface area was 0.71 cm2 with a thickness of 0.2 mm. 041b061a72


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