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# Rubik 39;s Cube Algorithms Pdf

## Rubik's Cube Algorithms PDF: A Guide to Solving the World's Most Popular Puzzle

The Rubik's cube is a three-dimensional puzzle that consists of six faces, each divided into nine smaller squares of one of six colors. The goal of the puzzle is to twist and turn the faces until each one has only one color. Sounds simple, right? Well, not quite. The Rubik's cube has over 43 quintillion possible configurations, but only one solution. To solve it, you need to know some algorithms, which are sequences of moves that achieve a certain result.

Algorithms are very useful for solving the Rubik's cube, because they allow you to manipulate specific parts of the cube without affecting others. By applying different algorithms, you can gradually solve the puzzle layer by layer, from the first layer to the last layer. Learning algorithms can also help you improve your speed, memory, and logical thinking skills.

## rubik 39;s cube algorithms pdf

In this article, we will show you how to solve the Rubik's cube using some basic algorithms, and where to find PDF files with more algorithms for different levels of difficulty. Whether you are a beginner or an expert, you will find something useful and interesting in this guide. So grab your cube and let's get started!

## How to Solve the Rubik's Cube

Before we dive into the algorithms, we need to establish some notation for describing the faces, moves, and pieces of the cube. This will help us communicate more clearly and avoid confusion.

### Notation

We will use letters to represent the six faces of the cube: Front (F), Right (R), Down (D), Up (U), Left (L), and Back (B). A letter by itself means to turn that face 90 degrees clockwise with respect to the center of the cube. For example, F means to turn the front face clockwise. A letter with an apostrophe (F') means to turn that face 90 degrees counter-clockwise. A letter followed by a number 2 (F2) means to turn that face 180 degrees.

To refer to an individual piece or a face of a piece, we use one letter for the center pieces, two letters for the edge pieces, and three letters for the corner pieces. The letters indicate which faces of the cube that piece belongs to. The first letter gives the side of that piece we are referring to. For example, in this picture:

The red square is at FUR, yellow at RUF, blue at URF, and green at ULB.

### . First Layer

The first step to solving the Rubik's cube is to make a white cross on the top face of the cube. To do this, you need to find the four white edge pieces and place them between the white center and the matching side center. For example, the white and green edge piece should go between the white and green centers, like this:

To move an edge piece to its correct position, you may need to use one of these algorithms:

Case

Algorithm

The edge piece is on the bottom layer, facing down.

R' D' R D

The edge piece is on the bottom layer, facing sideways.

F2 U R' L F2 R L'

The edge piece is on the middle layer, facing sideways.

U R U' R' U' F' U F

The edge piece is on the top layer, but not aligned with its center.

U until it is aligned, then F2

The edge piece is on the top layer, but flipped.

F' U L' U' L F

Once you have the white cross, you need to solve the four white corner pieces. To do this, you need to find the corner piece that matches the colors of the side centers around it, and move it to the bottom layer. Then, you need to use this algorithm to bring it up to the top layer:

R' D' R D (repeat until solved)

For example, if you have this corner piece:

You need to move it under the white, red, and blue centers, like this:

Then, you need to apply the algorithm R' D' R D until it goes up to the top layer, like this:

Repeat this process for the other three corner pieces. When you are done, you should have a completed first layer, like this:

### Middle Layer

The next step is to solve the four middle layer edges. To do this, you need to find an edge piece on the top layer that does not have a yellow sticker, and move it above the side center that matches its color. For example, if you have this edge piece:

You need to move it above the green center, like this:

Then, depending on which direction you need to move it to match its other color, you need to use one of these algorithms:

Case

Algorithm

The edge piece needs to go to the left.

U' L' U L U F U' F'

The edge piece needs to go to the right.

U R U' R' U' F' U F

For example, in our case, we need to move the edge piece to the left, so we use the first algorithm: U' L' U L U F U' F'. This will result in this:

Repeat this process for the other three edge pieces. When you are done, you should have a completed middle layer, like this:

### Last Layer

The final step is to solve the last layer, which consists of four yellow edges and four yellow corners. To do this, you need to apply two steps: orientation and permutation. Orientation means to make all the yellow stickers face up, and permutation means to put them in their correct positions.

To orient the last layer edges, you need to look at the top face and see how many yellow stickers are facing up. There are four possible cases:

Case

Algorithm

No yellow stickers are facing up.

F R U R' U' F'

One yellow sticker is facing up.

F R U R' U' F' U F R U R' U' F'

Two yellow stickers are facing up, forming a horizontal line.

F R U R' U' F'

Two yellow stickers are facing up, forming a vertical line.

F R U R' U' F' U2 F R U R' U' F'

For example, if you have this case:

You need to use the second algorithm: F R U R' U' F' U F R U R' U' F'. This will result in this:

To orient the last layer corners, you need to look at the top face and see how many yellow stickers are in the correct position. There are seven possible cases:

Case

Algorithm

No yellow stickers are in the correct position.

R' F R' B2 R F' R' B2 R2

One yellow sticker is in the correct position.

R' F R' B2 R F' R' B2 R2 (repeat until solved)

Two adjacent yellow stickers are in the correct position.

R2 D R' U2 R D' R' U2 R'

Two opposite yellow stickers are in the correct position.

R2 D R' U2 R D' R' U2 R'

Three yellow stickers are in the correct position.

R' F R' B2 R F' R' B2 R2 (repeat until solved)

Four yellow stickers are in the correct position, but not oriented.

R' F R' B2 R F' R' B2 R2 (repeat until solved)

Four yellow stickers are in the correct position and oriented.

No algorithm needed, you are done!

For example, if you have this case:

You need to use the third algorithm: R2 D R' U2 R D' R' U2 R'. This will result in this:

To permute the last layer edges, you need to look at the top face and see if the edge pieces are in their correct positions. If they are not, you need to use one of these algorithms:

Case

Algorithm

The edge pieces need to be swapped in a clockwise direction.

R U R' U R U2 R'

The edge pieces need to be swapped in a counter-clockwise direction.

R U2 R' U' R U' R'

The edge pieces need to be swapped across from each other.

R U2 R' U' R U' R' U2 R U2 R'

For example, if you have this case:

You need to use the third algorithm: R U2 R' U' R U' R' U2 R U2 R'. This will result in this:

To permute the last layer corners, you need to look at the top face and see if the corner pieces are in their correct positions. If they are not, you need to use this algorithm:

U R U' L' U R' U' L (repeat until solved)

For example, if you have this case:

You need to use the algorithm: U R U' L' U R' U' L. This will res